Producer- encodes

Encoding, or spelling, is the reverse process. The skills used in encoding are usually developed alongside decoding skills and reflect similar learning.


Audience- decodes

Decoding means translating written words into the sounds and meanings of spoken words.


Preferred reading

Oppositional reading

Negotiated reading


Stereotypes: Media representations often use stereotypes as a cultural shorthand

Stuart hall: Stuart hall emphasises importance of visual representation.

At a basic level representation is the way in which signs are used to construct meaning. The study of representation has tended to focus upon the way in which different social groups are represented (gender, race, sexuality, social class, etc.)






Strong, powerful, intelligent, Quick thinking.

Bruce Wayne uses wealth and intelligence to capture Mr. Wong

Harvey dent shows authority in the law when he has a gun pointed to his head by saying ‘But your honor I’m not done’, shows he’s calm and collected.


Sexualized, objectified, gold diggers.

Rachel, in need of Batman’s help, she is shows to be tempted by two men, we know this because of where she kisses Bruce Wayne but is in a relationship with Harvey Dent.

Laura Mulvey’s male gaze theory, positions the audience to view women through the eyes of heterosexual men.




Women: Independent, Strong, Arrogant

One of the side quests is to save cat woman from the Riddler, who has an explosive collar strapped to her neck, after completion Batman says “You must be honored.” Cat woman replies “At being what? Your motivation?”. This shows she’s strong and not very stereotypical.



I also looked at a very thoughtful article about how and why diversity matters in video games.


In my game:

All my characters are going to be very stereotypical and represented in that way. For example my main character will be very masculine and a stereotypical hero and the bear will be very aggressive, strong and hard to kill.

This will help make my game more realistic and reach to my target audience and help be a better all round game.




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